Showing no erotic interest in adults, they can only become sexually aroused while fantasizing about or being in the presence of prepubescent children, or both. Non-exclusive offenders are sexually attracted to both children and adults, and can be sexually aroused by both, though a sexual preference for one over the other in this case may also exist.
If the attraction is a sexual preference for prepubescent children, such offenders are considered pedophiles in the same vein as exclusive offenders. The diagnosis can therefore be made based on the presence of fantasies or sexual urges even if they have never been acted upon. On the other hand, a person who acts upon these urges yet experiences no distress about their fantasies or urges can also qualify for the diagnosis. Acting on sexual urges is not limited to overt sex acts for purposes of this diagnosis, and can sometimes include indecent exposure , voyeuristic or frotteuristic behaviors,  or masturbating to child pornography.
Likewise, when the patient is in late adolescence, the age difference is not specified in hard numbers and instead requires careful consideration of the situation. Ego-dystonic sexual orientation F Its criterion A concerns sexual fantasies or sexual urges regarding prepubescent children, and its criterion B concerns acting on those urges or the urges causing marked distress or interpersonal difficulty.
Several researchers discussed whether or not a "contented pedophile"—an individual who fantasizes about having sex with a child and masturbates to these fantasies, but does not commit child sexual abuse, and who does not feel subjectively distressed afterward—met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia since this person did not meet criterion B.
A large-scale survey about usage of different classification systems showed that the DSM classification is only rarely used. As an explanation, it was suggested that the underinclusiveness, as well as a lack of validity, reliability and clarity might have led to the rejection of the DSM classification.
Ray Blanchard , an American-Canadian sexologist known for his research studies on pedophilia, addressed in his literature review for the DSM-5 the objections to the overinclusiveness and under underinclusiveness of the DSM-IV-TR, and proposed a general solution applicable to all paraphilias.
This meant namely a distinction between paraphilia and paraphilic disorder. The latter term is proposed to identify the diagnosable mental disorder which meets Criterion A and B, whereas an individual who does not meet Criterion B can be ascertained but not diagnosed as having a paraphilia.
The American Psychiatric Association stated that "[i]n the case of pedophilic disorder, the notable detail is what wasn't revised in the new manual. O'Donohue, however, suggests that the diagnostic criteria for pedophilia be simplified to the attraction to children alone if ascertained by self-report, laboratory findings, or past behavior.
He states that any sexual attraction to children is pathological and that distress is irrelevant, noting "this sexual attraction has the potential to cause significant harm to others and is also not in the best interests of the individual. Barbaree and Michael C. Seto disagreed with the American Psychiatric Association's approach in and instead recommended the use of actions as the sole criterion for the diagnosis of pedophilia, as a means of taxonomic simplification.
There is no evidence that pedophilia can be cured. There are several common limitations to studies of treatment effectiveness. Most categorize their participants by behavior rather than erotic age preference, which makes it difficult to know the specific treatment outcome for pedophiles. Offenders who refuse or quit treatment are at higher risk of offending, so excluding them from the treated group, while not excluding those who would have refused or quit from the control group, can bias the treated group in favor of those with lower recidivism.
Cognitive behavioral therapy CBT aims to reduce attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that may increase the likelihood of sexual offenses against children. Its content varies widely between therapists, but a typical program might involve training in self-control, social competence and empathy, and use cognitive restructuring to change views on sex with children. The most common form of this therapy is relapse prevention , where the patient is taught to identify and respond to potentially risky situations based on principles used for treating addictions.
The evidence for cognitive behavioral therapy is mixed. Behavioral treatments target sexual arousal to children, using satiation and aversion techniques to suppress sexual arousal to children and covert sensitization or masturbatory reconditioning to increase sexual arousal to adults. Pharmacological interventions are used to lower the sex drive in general, which can ease the management of pedophilic feelings, but does not change sexual preference.
Cyproterone acetate Androcur and medroxyprogesterone acetate Depo-Provera are the most commonly used. The efficacy of antiantrogens has some support, but few high-quality studies exist. Cyproterone acetate has the strongest evidence for reducing sexual arousal, while findings on medroxyprogesterone acetate have been mixed.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues such as leuprorelin Lupron , which last longer and have fewer side-effects, are also used to reduce libido,  as are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Historically, surgical castration was used to lower sex drive by reducing testosterone.
The emergence of pharmacological methods of adjusting testosterone has made it largely obsolete, because they are similarly effective and less invasive. Non-randomized studies have reported that surgical castration reduces recidivism in contact sex offenders.
Females may account for 0. The term pedophile is commonly used by the public to describe all child sexual abuse offenders. Some pedophiles do not molest children. He states that pedophiles who are "reflective, sensitive to the feelings of others, averse to risk, abstain from alcohol or drug use, and endorse attitudes and beliefs supportive of norms and the laws" may be unlikely to abuse children.
The pedophilic molesters had neurological deficits suggestive of disruptions in inhibitory regions of the brain, while non-offending pedophiles had no such deficits. According to Abel, Mittleman, and Becker  and Ward et al. They state that non-pedophilic offenders tend to offend at times of stress; have a later onset of offending; and have fewer, often familial, victims, while pedophilic offenders often start offending at an early age; often have a larger number of victims who are frequently extrafamilial; are more inwardly driven to offend; and have values or beliefs that strongly support an offense lifestyle.
One study found that pedophilic molesters had a median of 1. Some groom their victims into compliance with attention and gifts, while others use threats, alcohol or drugs, or physical force. Pedophilia is believed to have occurred in humans throughout history,  but was not formally named, defined or studied until the late 19th century.
The term paedophilia erotica was coined in an article by the Viennese psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing but does not enter the author's Psychopathia Sexualis  until the 10th German edition. Krafft-Ebing describes several typologies of offender, dividing them into psychopathological and non-psychopathological origins, and hypothesizes several apparent causal factors that may lead to the sexual abuse of children.
Krafft-Ebing mentioned paedophilia erotica in a typology of "psycho-sexual perversion". He wrote that he had only encountered it four times in his career and gave brief descriptions of each case, listing three common traits:. He mentions several cases of pedophilia among adult women provided by another physician , and also considered the abuse of boys by homosexual men to be extremely rare. He also lists pseudopaedophilia as a related condition wherein "individuals who have lost libido for the adult through masturbation and subsequently turn to children for the gratification of their sexual appetite" and claimed this is much more common.
Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud briefly wrote about the topic in his book Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality in a section titled The Sexually immature and Animals as Sexual objects. Feel free to login! This is optional. Username or Email Address. Remember Me. Take Online Classes With Me:. Online Card Classes. Today I am sharing how to use various dies to create see-through card fronts. These are great cards! Love all the techniques you show us.
I have been so inspired by you! Beautiful cards — I love the one with the burlap peaking through. Love these see-through cards.
You always have the best ideas. We asked Kamal Hossain, who runs a booth to locate lost children, to photograph the crisis from his perspective. Survivors in refugee camps in Bangladesh say they want justice. He created a website, justiceforfrank. Eric Carlson plans to make a public statement on the case Sunday.
Evan Sernoffsky is a San Francisco Chronicle staff writer. Email: esernoffsky sfchronicle. Back to Gallery Her assailant tortured and killed her husband in SF. Amazon Rapids Fun stories for kids on the go. ComiXology Thousands of Digital Comics.
DPReview Digital Photography. East Dane Designer Men's Fashion. Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. Deals and Shenanigans. Ring Smart Home Security Systems. PillPack Pharmacy Simplified.
Amazon Renewed Like-new products you can trust. Amazon Second Chance Pass it on, trade it in, give it a second life. It'll be just like in the old days, when you guys were hunters together!
Zander: Now, I need to break it to the pack that our alpha is dead. But if you need a lead, Annette had just taken up a seasonal job as a park ranger. You might want to check out the ranger cabin where she was staying! Investigate Ranger's Cabin. Gwen: These digs aren't half bad. If I ever get sick of being a hunter, maybe I'll take up a job as a ranger! Someone must've been here just recently! Gwen: If you can recover the fingerprints on that mug, maybe we can identify our intruder!
Gwen: As for that broken necklace, can you put it back together? Gwen: Let's hope finding Annette's killer will shed some light on the demonic involvement in this magic tree core mystery! Examine Broken Pieces. Gwen: Strange we'd find her here, so far from home. Especially since she's the person who told us about the existence of demons! This clue proves she definitely knew their werewolf ally!
Let's question her about it! Ask Haseya Roanhorse what she knew about the victim. I sense that you come bearing bad news. Gwen: Annette Strong, the werewolf alpha, has been murdered. We believe you might've known her? Haseya: Yes, I knew Annette. The Navajo and the wolves have a strong bond, you see. We believe they can restore good health to our sick! Gwen: Annette appears to have been murdered trying to defend a magic tree.
Someone overpowered her and stole the core! That tree is the stuff of legends among my people. It appeared some 25 years ago Gwen: All we know is that demons had an interest in that tree. Do you know why? Haseya: Demons?! I sensed that the dark forces had gotten stronger since we last spoke! These are dire times indeed if that core has fallen into their hands! Examine Coffee Mug. Examine Fingerprints.
These fingerprints on the mug belong to Falcon , the chief's former mentor! Gwen: You crossed paths with him back in Idaho. What could he be doing here, a master hunter in the home of a werewolf? Gwen: Judging by the fact his coffee was warm, he just stepped out. Ask Falcon what he's doing in the cabin. Falcon pointing a crossbow : Who goes there?!
We work with your old friend, Jacob Arrow! I was two seconds from blowing your heads off! Gwen: Well, thank goodness you didn't! What are you doing here in Annette Strong's cabin, Falcon? Falcon: Annette Strong? No idea who that is.
I came across the cabin while looking for a place to sleep for the night. Nobody was around, so I made myself at home! Gwen: Well, Annette Strong was the alpha of the local werewolf pack. Someone murdered her in order to steal the core of a magic tree Falcon: I don't know anything about a magic tree. But I don't like the sound of something potentially powerful falling into the wrong hands!
Gwen: Us neither. Our only lead is that a writer called Arthur Darkwood was interested in that core. And it turns out that he's a demon! Falcon: You've unmasked a demon and lived to tell the tale?! Gwen: Well, Darkwood claims to be a good demon. Yet he refused to tell us why we should stay away from the magic tree he mentioned in his notes!
Falcon: Humph! Classic reverse psychology. Sounds to me like he's maneuvered you into a trap. And you've fallen for it Examine Bloody Leaves. Gwen disgusted : Oh, God Gwen: We know Annette's heart was cut out - this must belong to her! Let's get it to Ben! Analyze Human Heart. Ben: But I guess that's what you get for conspiring with demons! Gwen: Yeah, we'd only just learned that Annette and our writer-demon had a mysterious alliance regarding a magical tree. And now we've found Annette dead and the tree core missing!
Gwen: There's clearly a lot we don't know Ben: But leaving the knife lodged in the heart was a rookie error. Because I found traces of a foreign substance on the handle! Ben: Under closer inspection, I identified a combination of nuts, seeds, and oats on the knife - all the ingredients found in a protein bar! Gwen: Hold on a sec, are you saying our killer stuffed their face with a protein bar before callously carving Annette's heart out?!
Don't let them muscle their way out of paying for their crime! Autopsy Victim's Body. He feels like we're always one step behind! Gwen: It sure does feel like we're in over our heads!
But as usual, all we can do is focus on the facts. So what've you got for us on the body? Ben: Well, Annette obviously had her heart cut out. And there was evidence of a struggle, which suggests she was still alive when the killer started carving her open!
Gwen: That's awful! Ben: Thankfully, the shock would've killed her before the killer could remove her heart. And they left a vital clue as they did so! Ben: See, the shape of the wound indicates that your killer is right-handed! Gwen: So, we're looking for a right-handed killer, are we? Back at the base Gwen: We knew he had some sort of pact with the werewolves. But we arrived to find the alpha, Annette Strong, with her heart ripped out!
Gwen: Her pack member, Zander Stark, told us that Annette had been guarding the tree. But he refused to tell us anything about who might have stolen the core, or even what it's for! She knew of the magical tree's existence but claims to be unaware of its origin or powers. Felix: I know where the core of the magical tree was taken!
I slept terribly and I've had a headache all day! Gwen: This case isn't helping, either. We came to Yellowstone because of a magical tree the demon, Arthur Darkwood, mentioned in his notes. Gwen: We knew he had some sort of pact with the werewolves Gwen: Could Annette's death have something to do with her deal with Darkwood?
Felix: That I can't tell you. But I do know where your killer took the magic core! Gwen: What?! You know where the core is? Let's go- Felix: Heh, I didn't quite say that.Mar 01, · 1 of 3 Annette Carlson, photographed on Monday, Feb. 24, in San Francisco, Calif.., is working to keep her rapist and her husband s murderer behind bars. Photo: Russell Yip / .