Lecon VI : Phrases De Conversation - Jean Boorsch - Modern French By Sound (Vinyl, LP)

Unissued Garage Acetates, v. Carl Sagan explaining the 4th dimension via YouTube ] Motel Atlas Sound feat. Universal Studios Florida feat. Tony Allen Vs. Park Ave Cause Co-Motion! Nazir Ali [Feat. Finders Keepers 9. Sony Pavilion — Consumer Electronics Show Detailed playlist here with listening links. Buddha Machine 2. Dawn Hurt, 2. Noon and the Nails in the Coffin, 3. EP iTunes Northport, represent! Look Great! The Unbearable Dumbness of Being, b. NYC, v. Factory Pete Seeger and Brother Kirk feat.

Polyvinyl 3. Teeth Mountain — Teeth Mountain Shdwply Sex Mob feat. Bob L. III — P. Done it This Way? Carpark 5. Sun OK Papi K. Young and Wlliam L. Listen here Detailed playlist. Kanye West] Now through Sunday, March 15th. Listen here. Detailed playlist.

Folk and Pop Sounds from Iraq compilation Joanna Newsom from Aptos Tribute to the Hark Album by Wim T. Schippers compilation 5. Pongolove from Black Diamond Do You Dig Worms? Live set from Kittybaby! David Byrne from Dark Was the Night compilation Bruce Hampton from Arkansas Dog from Takers and Leavers EP Justine from My New Music WWI Christmas voices from Salisbury Gates from Goodbye Babylon box set Marc Ribot from Guitars 5.

Grateful Dead from Rocking the Cradle: Egypt Doseone from Missing Dragons EP Pops Staples from Sounds from True Stories Wall of Banjos feat. Bhatt, Jie-Bing chen from Tabula Rasa Wall of Calliope feat. Lonnie Farris from Slide Guitar Gospel compilaiton Jim McfJuiic, llobcrt Mea. Hubert lirewster jr. James Fox Jr. Myron Kroener, Itobert Kiihn. Jerry Ritt- uei-. Douglas McNeal. Cruise ['aimer Jr. Itobert Harwood, Rodney HiRbee.

Virgil Gross Jr.. Stanley Kephard Jr. Michael Lewis. Steplicn Tossier ami Gregff Wilhite. Peter Bell,. Bill Dillingham, Tom Barani. Michael Kfrsch, Donald Mclntyre. William McKee. Robert Hilterbrand. John Reeves and Kent Stanzel. Patricia Kildow, Connie Liith- rop. Sharon Mcisner, Janet Merchant. Nancy Nelson. Patricia Buggies. Diane Schwtndt. C y nth! Kim Woodard, Regina Young. Rita Terry. Nancy Durham. Claudia Garrett. Karen Itobinson. Suz- anne Smith, Mary Tussey, Cathie llrlch.

Classic darks, lights, brights, and all the in-between shades. Complete selection of accessories for a fashion right ensemble. You always look well groomei MM others from William O. Douglas, who took his seat on the Supreme Court April 17, , has been a con- sistent fighter for civil liber- ties. Also a former chairman of the U. Remaining amounts are spent for student aid, debt and non- expense, Art Buchwald, whose travel abroad and in the U. Other speakers include Teo- doro Moscoso, former U.

In- formation Agency and highest ranking Negro in the U. Many of the speakers will be scheduled to visit appropriate classes In the afternoon. The all-male group will per- form first in a pre-ganie opener Oct. This first home game halftime performance will be Bund Day. In addition to all four home games the marching band will perform at the Kansas Univer- sity and Iowa State games.

The solo twirling team fea- tured with the band Is Janice Miller. Jerry Ogden, SP So, is drum mnjor for the marching corps. The proposed nieniber pep band has not yet attained the desin-d enrollment liuf still is being considered.

You'll look your best at football games, parties, in class, wherever you go. Come by and see this great Pedwin saddle soon. For a change of pace. Take along a fine worsted as well as a tweed or "country suit" with a vest. The new colors will make you stand out. Robust fabrics tailored on soft, natural lines.

Herringbones, plaids, stripes, In more spirited colorings, bolder contrasts. In your choice of fabrics. Eleven regular operators along with 10 substitutes try to keep up with the busy switchboard. While the phone system at the new dorm is func- tional, work is being completed on intercoms and other communication systems. Remodeling and construc- tion has changed K-State, in- side and outside. He said that the new section would include offices, labs, and a lihrary.

They will he mainly for electrical and mechanical engineering students. Remodeling in Waters hall is Roses Aren't Coining Up, But at Last Elevators Are If college life has been con- fusing to the women living In Moore hall, it's even a bigger mess when they arrive at their living facilit f es there.

Regardless of earlier incon- veniences, Moore hall Is now " Operating efficiently," accord- ing to assistant dorm director Carol Coon. Senators Planning Weekend Retreat To Review Goals Student senators plan to es- tablish responsibilities and goals lor the coming school year at a retreat today, Saturday and Sunday, according to Jim Thie- sing. Mc- Cain, Chester Peters, dean of students, and Walter Friesen, associate dean of students, will speak at the retreat.

Student senators will leave this evening from the K-State Union to begin the retreat. Sat- urday they will discuss appor- tionments, by-laws, campus af- fairs, cultural affairs and com- mittee co-ordinating staff. Laundry problems were com- plicated further by ironing boards that had no covers. The trash chutes were an- other inconvenience to the new dormitory residents. They weren't finished. However, Miss Coon said reg- ular mattresses now have been installed.

Mirrors are being installed and closet door knobs, which kept falling out, have been re- placed. Many of the girls reported fuses blowing when their lamps were plugged into electrical out- lets.

Confusing phone and inter- com systems are being set in order as well. Food service will be provided for the women by cafeterias in Van Zile and Boyd halls and by Kramer Food Service until the food complex behind Moore hall is completed. It is expected to be ready for use approximately Oct. The acts were picked from auditions Wednesday night.

A kick-off dance be at 8 p. Saturday in the Union Ball- nearly complete, except for the equipment, which has not ar- rived. More laboratory and re- search faculties are oeing in- stalled. It will house 14 offices. The third dorm is now un- derway and will be completed September, The fourth hall will be finished in the fall of The cafeteria serving the com- plex will be finished in 30 days and ready for use, according to Gingrich. World at a Glimpse With increased housing facili- ties and a new position of Resi- dence Hall Program Director, K- State housing programs have been reduced since last year, ac- cording to Thomas Frith, assist- ant dean in charge of residence hall programs.

Frith came from Iowa State University to become director of residence hall housing. At that time women temporarily oc- cupied social rooms in Putnam and Boyd halls and Student Health or lived with friends and relatives in town.

The nine-Btory dormitory was still under minor construction when coeds began to move in Sunday. Wiring for tele- phones, outside lighting and In- tercoms has not been completed. Temporary facilities In Marlatt and Goodnow halls housed some men until cancellations made roomB available. There are men each In Marlatt and Goodnow. West Stadium houses men. Fifty men occupy the once-coed dormitory.

The food service Is still under construction for the West-Moore complex. Until Its expected com- pletion, Nov. I think some students will be sorry to see it end," he said. Already men and live in the three university schol- arship houses — Smurlhwaite, Smith and Straube. The completion of new private apartment houses for men helped lessen the shortage crisis.

Hopefully the residence hall now under construction n the West- Moore complex will be for men. It nhould alleviate the shortage that has arisen this year. When It snows, students and faculty may wonder where the yellow went, but officials hope to get the white stuff off the blacktop In a hurry.

Among campus Improvements made during the summer break is the blacktop surface of the Union parking lot. Concrete parkinit barriers were removed and two and one- half inches of blacktop was used for the new surface. The lot had been gravel surfaced , with concrete drives around the park- ing stalls.

Snow will melt on blacktop surfaces quicker than on concrete sur- faces, Gingrich said. Campus police will enforce parking regulations, which state vehicles must be properly parked in the marked stalls.

Gingrich said police will undoubtedly be lenient If the parking lines are not visible. The parking lot north of Jus- tin hall also was resurfaced and driveways to it were constructed. The Chinese accused India of "intrusions" along the fron- tier. In a note delivered to the Indian charge d'affaires in Pek- ing, China warned that the in- stallations be removed within three days.

For deails see page 3. A spokesman for the hos- pital said the two-time Academy Award-winning actor was ad- mitted ior medical observation last Aug. On the ground, a multi-nation force continued an anti-guerrilla drive In the jungles north of Saigon with only light opposi- tion.

Governor Cancels Trip Because of inclement weather conditions in western Kansas. William H. Avery today canceled a scheduled trip to Lamed and Hays.

Pole Victim Improving A New York secretary who was in critical condition for weeks after her skull was pierced by a metal pole in a freak ac- cident in Times Ssuare, is now recovering in a rehabilitation center. More than half of the 3, man construction work force honored the machinists' picket lines at spaceport entrances on Thursday.

Some building proj- ects were shut down and the rest of the construtcion at the Project Apollo moon base wan seriously affected by the strike. Fires Sear California A series of windswept grass brush fires swept across north- ern California early today, dam- aging some communities, threat- ening others, destroying numer- ous buildings and blackening nearly 50, acres.

And the parking problem here haB become bo large thut renovation of present facilities, although a step in the right direction, just isn't the answer. With enrollment increasing by almost 1, per year, students with a parking permit are about as numerous as closed classes on enrollment day. Only freshmen and students living in residence halls are not allowed to purchase a parking lot permit.

CjLOSK to campus are lined with permit-bearing automobiles — their owners in short walking distance of campus. An increasing number of sophomore, who just three months ago did not have a permit, sport brand new parking stickers.

And yet, parking space does not increase on campus. As a reality there isn't room to park everyone's car — the space is required for academic pursuits. IT WOUL5 seem students living within walk- ing distance, and this includes a large number, should leave their cars home and walk to campus. Sophomores as well as freshmen should be in- cluded with students uot able to purchase a permit. It might not solve the problem entirely, but it would at least make the parking dilemma easier for students who have to Fred's Findings Sooner Clash Smash Pitty the students at the University of Texas and the University of Oklahoma at- tending the annual Texas-OU Dance.

The Oklahoma Daily reports that the dance rules — the liquor law is just one — were drawn up largely to keep the stand- ards of the activity at a level which will re- flect as a credit to botth student bodies. Some couples will get stoned on their quart while others will go thirsty.

Is there a bootlegger in the crowd? Oh well, after the booze is gone they can play "spin the bottle. If it doesn't dazzle your man it might create the impression that your oV man is rich. It seenisaw there was a 'technical problem. ANYONE who happened to be near Anderson hall Thursday at the time of the morning and noon concerts probably thought someone in Aggieville had their tran- sister turned up too loud.

The bells were nearly inaudible. Sometimes you think the balloon is all ready to go up and then you have to put on the stopper. Greeks Nip 'em in the Bud See the Greeks coerced students to pledge. It will be interesting to see how many survive the rigors of 3 a. Careful actives, your pledges are the chapter's 'money of tomor- row' — in the form of prosperous, loving alumni.

We've heard of sexual equality, so why not? Male members of the K-State student body worry about grades, so why not? Single males get prematurely gray fearing what their future holds for them, so why not? So why not what? Why not permit females, of which this country has an abundant supply, to share the mental anguish with all eligible draft-age males, that's what! More often than not, she bravely proclaims to all the world that she would gladly take some other GI's place in Vietnam, just to be with her private private.

Very well! Because sexual equality is so much in the news and is readily accepted, let her go. I'm sure that more than one male student who isn't academically secure would welcome the chance to switch duffel bags with her. Therefore, the sugges- tion I heard in my coeducational bowling class, which treats both sexes equally, seems to be just about faultless.

That suggestion being, to have a national pool of girls with GI boyfriends who have received their traveling orders. Now then, whenever a male student gets tapped by LBJ's long arm, he simply forwards his "greeting from his friends and neighbors" to the national girl pool NGP via the U.

Once the greeting arrives at the NGP, the occupants of said organization will be picked, probably alphabetic- ally, processed and inducted and will soon be on their way to sunny Vietnam and their respective private private. If the knowledge that the soldier in the next foxhole wasn't alone proved upsetting, perhaps a mail- order foxhole warmer service might be initiated for girl- less privates.

After discussing the NGP plan with a few World War II veterans, a number of unforeseen problems cropped up, namely, someone would be required to dig extra la- trines; miles of additional wire would be needed to fur- nish electricity to hair dryers; and nail polish wouldn't dry in the rainy climate. A program lives today and dies tomorrow. A mind, if it be open may change with each day, but the spirit and the heart are as unchanging as the tides.

A stiffly worded Chinese note handed to the Indian charge d'affaires in Peking, J. Men- ta, accused India of "intrusions and procations" along the fron- tier. It once again raised fears of Peking's intervention.

The note was in answer to the Indian notes of last Sept. The legislation, approved by a voice vote, generally followed administration recommendations.

It would give farmers in the United States and Puerto Rico about 80 per cent of the sugar market in Thirty-two other sugar-growing countries would supply the remainder. Chairman Harold D. In his encyclical Providentissimus Deus , he described the importance of scriptures for theological study. He also opposed efforts to Latinize the Eastern Rite Churches and stated that they constitute a most valuable ancient tradition and symbol of the divine unity of the Catholic Church.

He expressed that in his encyclical "Orientalium Dignitas" of and wrote, "The Churches of the East are worthy of the glory and reverence that they hold throughout the whole of Christendom in virtue of those extremely ancient, singular memorials that they have bequeathed to us.

Leo XIII is credited with great efforts in the areas of scientific and historical analysis. He opened the Vatican Archives and personally fostered a volume comprehensive scientific study of the Papacy by Ludwig von Pastor , an Austrian historian.

Leo XIII, in light of his unprecedented promulgation of the rosary in 11 encyclicals, was called the Rosary Pope because he promulgated Marian devotion. In his encyclical on the 50th anniversary of the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception, he stresses Mary's role in the redemption of humanity and calls her Mediatrix and Co-Redemptrix.

While allowing the title "Mediatrix", recent popes, following on the Second Vatican Council, have warned away from the term "co-redemptrix" as derogating from the one mediator, Jesus Christ. Leo XIII worked to encourage understanding between the Church and the modern world, but he preferred a cautious view on freedom of thought, stating that it "is quite unlawful to demand, defend, or to grant unconditional freedom of thought, or speech, of writing or worship, as if these were so many rights given by nature to man.

Eternal law commands the natural order to be maintained, and forbids that it be disturbed; men's destiny is far above human things and beyond the earth. His encyclicals changed the Church's relations with temporal authorities; the encyclical Rerum novarum , for the first time, addressed social inequality and social justice issues with papal authority by focusing on the rights and duties of capital and labour.

He was greatly influenced by Wilhelm Emmanuel von Ketteler , a German bishop who openly propagated siding with the suffering working classes in his book Die Arbeiterfrage und das Christentum. Leo had argued that both capitalism and communism are flawed. Rerum novarum introduced the idea of subsidiarity , the principle that political and social decisions should be taken at a local level, if possible, rather than by a central authority, into Catholic social thought.

He approved the cult of Cosmas of Aphrodisia. He beatified several of the English martyrs in One of the first audiences that Leo XIII granted was to the professors and students of the Collegio Capranica , where in the first row knelt in front of him the young seminarian Giacomo Della Chiesa , the future Pope Benedict XV , who would reign from to Even though she was strictly forbidden to speak to him because she was told that it would prolong the audience too much, she wrote in her autobiography, Story of a Soul , that after she kissed his slipper and he presented his hand, instead of kissing it, she took it in her own hand and said through tears, "Most Holy Father, I have a great favor to ask you.

In honor of your Jubilee, permit me to enter Carmel at the age of 15! Holy Father, if you say yes, everybody will agree! You will enter if God wills it " [italics hers]. Two guards lifted her still on her knees in front of the Pope by her arms and carried her to the door, where a third gave her a medal of the Pope. Leo XIII was the first pope to be born in the 19th century and was also the first to die in the 20th century: he lived to the age of 93, dying on 20 July , [54] the second longest-lived pope ever behind Pope Benedict XVI as of [update].

Charles A. Finn , a priest of the Archdiocese of Boston and at his own death the oldest priest in the United States, served as a Mass officer at his funeral. He was moved there in late From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Priestly ordination. Episcopal consecration. Main article: papal conclave. Emblem of the Holy See. Rerum novarum. Peace and love. I simply think their project was outrageous, humorous and makes for good story telling.

My reaction would be the same if the Plaster Caster's had been two men. Why don't you round up some women to write or create art for Sound Choice. The more the merrier 1 say. I have a few suggestions that may help a would-be radio pirate. First, I agree that using your telephone to turn your station on from a remote location is an excellent way to avoid being caught. However, the telephone remote control circuit that you published has some serious drawbacks.

The way it stands, either you must be in constant phone contact with the transmitter, or you need someone at the transmitter to answer the telephone, so you can use the remote control. I am sending a circuit that should make the whole operation a lot safer.

This circuit will answer the telephone after a set amount of ringing time, connect the line to the tone decoder to the telephone line for a set amount of time, and then hang up and reset itself. It was a lot of fun and I learned a lot.

It seemed cheap — 10 cents for a part here, 95 cents there, etc. R2 and C2 for the hang up times. I would recommend using solid tantilum caps and keeping the values to MF max and keeping the resistors below 5 MEG.

This will give a maximum time out of about 5 minutes. It would also be possible to tune the tone decoder to one of the frequencies generated by a touch tone telephone, saving the bother of having to make a dedicated tone generator.

Also, it may be a good idea to use FET input op-amps instead of discreet fets in the mixer, and if at all possible, not take your audio upstream from the LM which is not exactly a hi fi chip. Anyway thank you for a most interesting article and a chance to share ideas with another radiophile. Lets keep the homebrew technologies evolving! But limes are changing. Why bother, anyway? This week the April issue of Electronic Musician arrived and there was an article in it about building thru boxes.

My feeling right now is that if you want to be really off the wall, doing a really personal brand of lo-tech weirdness which certaily has its merits , it might pay off to build a bunch of stuff. But for the same amount of money you could probably get a Commodore computer setup and a Casio CZ, produce a lot more sound and if you apply yourself, be every bit as weird. I believe computers and MIDI control, etc. A lot of my own music relates to that. Still, something like a CZ has potential that is hard to fathom, even.

But whose fault is that? Unless you feel creative and call this an article. Learn how to use a soldering iron,sure — stuff like patchbays, cords, switchboxes and all, it only makes sense to do yourself. March issue. After I got about halfway through I got so disgusted with what goes on with so-called student-run radio stations that 1 skipped over to the F.

This got me thinking. There are a lot of young people out there also who could use some alternative input about our world to guide them into adults. We could really be a pirate radio station. I got thinking about how to do this but had no idea where to begin. When I went back to reading your article, I read the end message. I need info bad. Red, Gainesville. Keep the 50 cents as a donation.

Thanks for all your work. Red, The comprehensive Pirate Radio article in S. I hope you mean that. Most people ask for suggestions, but hope to get distilled and concentrated praise and accolade. Your objective as senator, your dreams, if the word is not too naive for today, was to open doors of government. In short, to make government better, less bureaucratic, less in the hands of self-interest groups.

So, you get yourself elected. This is but a small step, my friend. Voters may have simply liked your opponent less. Some may not have known for whom they were voting. The fact is, you have no power. You will be forced to come home after the next election. I would rather not be in the Senate than to let anyone control me! Indeed, the question: Why must the alternative be always only so angrv.

It looks violent, prone to sensationalism. A third look and it gives a measure of intelligence and purpose. Even in a small photo of a man innocently working with a lathe, you choose a picture that looks violent. You carry on a fight with radio stations. Then you cap it off with an article about how to be blatantly outside the law Pirate Radio. By this atmosphere you invite the violent, the angry, the loser. At best, you see the world as black and white. It never is. You might have achieved some of your objectives.

As an ex-senator you have only losers cheering you and only for a brief time. The only point to this letter is that we need your magazine. For you I feel a sort of fraternal concern. I know the Final line of your drama. The rich blood of your idealism will become anemic. Your staff will decline. Only losers work for nothing—forever. Your mag will fold. Whatever good is in it will be lost. We need you and Sound Choice. I do, all of us do who are producers independent of music and published goods.

Perhaps as a consequence, never have books and music been so bland, so predictable. I publish mostly Cajun music. I think there might be as many as a million persons in the nation who might buy albums of Cajun music. The established trade magazines are not eager to review Cajun music. You know that story.

Hence my concern. The changes I have suggested so far will not be made unless you would agree with what I said. Little chance of that, but at least, consider the following change: Categorize the reviews. At age 62, I can still read 10 pt. After seeing only one issue No. Isn't that discrimination of a sort?

I know I like Cajun music. It has just occurred to me what might be the main problem. I could have made my letter shorter had I remembered what I know so well. You think the majority of people are as angry as you are! I wrote and self-published that book in the 70s. We had just come from the tumult of the 60s. I was sure that all over the nation there were millions of angry people. There isn't. Oh, we are angry and violent, make no mistakes. People who thrive on this kind of anger don't read books, except those they buy at supermarkets.

Let me tell you a little about that book. The ad said anyone who would agree to read this book and send me their honest critique of it would get a free postpaid copy. The First day I got over letters. I read all the letters, trying to decide which came from more intelligent, more liberated minds.

Of the people who presumably received a copy, only 15 sent me their critique. The ultimate put-down. One more shot. Bet you wrote at least one novel and had it rejected.

My friend, by actual count, I wrote 25 and had them all rejected, over and over. So, at this point, I have decided to send you a second book. He is not supposed to analyze or reform. Says who? And besides, what do you think you are doing? I paid for it. Pierre V. Also, you're not very clever when it comes to advertising, sending S to the mainstream press! For that amount you could take out four full pages in Sound Choice and 1 guarantee you would get more than 15 people would have followed through.

Liberated minds are trying to liberate themselves from the brainwashing of the mainstream, lowest- common-denominator mass-media. I think most caring, aware people in this society are frustrated to some extent, for a variety of reasons. I'm not betting on there being a later on. The most frustrating thing about butt kicking right now is that there are too many butt kissers with their faces in the way.

Once the butt kissers get off their hands and knees, real progress can begin. But let me make one thing clear, I think any lasting change for the good will only come about through a non-violent revolution. Let the oppresive structures and armor decay and watch all the bastards run naked into hiding.

It IS happening. And when the assholes of the world start shitting in their tracks it will be the butt kissers who get a mouthful. And another thing, you seem to think longevity is a prerequisite of success. It can help but not if its at the expense of integrity. Guys like Abbie Hoffman threw themselves into the fight for freedom, helped end the war in Vietnam and get Nixon out of office, and got bashed around for their troubles.

If it were not for those efforts, brief as they may have been , society would be in even worse shape than it is today. Now it's time for other people to pick up the baton. Publishing Sound Choice has educated me immensely and brought me new friends. Any success beyond that is pure gravy. I wouldfeel free. Where arid how much farther Sound Choice will go, and how it will evolve, is largely out of my hands.

Sound Choice is open to anyone willing to work. And I realize that Sound Choice is just a small piece in a very large puzzle, and I often think there are much more important things I could be doing with my time. If someone else wanted to publish Sound Choice and could carry it off without massive amounts of ass licking, I'd let them do it.

But I'm also very thankful for the opportunity to be an integral part of this project. Sincerely, DC. Unless otherwise noted, almost all of these stations program quite a bit of contemporary rock- oriented music. S7A helpful note from the folks at KXCI: to prevent warpage of records sent in the mail, remove the shrinkwrap before mailing during the hot summer months.

Why not help ether high schools get their own stations started? Some of the stations below are cemmarlcel stations. We would like to hear moro from soma of those stations.

We ask you: What are you doing to stir things up? The following stations are listed in zip-coda order, approximately east to west. MA USA; ph. Includes several ethnic shows. USA; ph Salem State College. USA ph. MA , USA; ph. Rl Lots of folk and jazz. Box Wesleyan Station. Middle- town. CT Mostly rock some indies. Upsale Collage. East Orange. NJ Adventurous, heavily indepencent oriented programming. NJ , USA; ph. Ferris Booth Hall, Room New Muse, world music — almost everything but rock.

Staten Island. NY Mostly indie-rock. Other than noting that "the majority of books have concen- trated on the legendry of jazz," that is, on a matter suppos- edly tangential to real issues, Schuller does not elaborate on or catalog the various approaches writers took in writing embellishments on jazz, "the music itself.

This task, however, needs to be done. To start with, someone could systematize the pre-musicological discourse of jazz, theorize the connotative values it assigns to the music. As of yet, though, no one has produced the semic that is, the connotative codes that structure representations of jazz.

Nevertheless, although the literature treating jazz can claim no equivalent of Barthes's A Lover's Discourse or Mythol- ogies, no meta-musicological text schematizing codes of musico- logical and ethnomusicological discourse, we could initiate such a study by observing that jazz— like its written repre- sentation—is consistently apprehended as a more or less spontaneous process whereby one elaborates or pal impsest ically "plays over" that which is conceived as already composed.

This process which even in its conception is already a represen- tation of jazz is always assigned a name. For example, in this chapter and, especially, in the section on Ellison's Invisible Man, I designate it as the obbligato figure. Denis Hollier, in his reexamination of Sartre, links it with vari- ation: "changes made in a tune through the addition of orna- ments which nevertheless allow the basic melody and movement to be maintained.

Marjorie Perloff, in her study of the textual strategies of the Futurists a movement coterminous with, and having deep affinities for, the Jazz Age , calls it "an art that depends not on revision in the interests of making the parts cohere in a unified formal structure, but on a prior readiness, a performative stance that leaves room for accident and surprise" FM, Her comments summarize a statement by Gerald L.

Bruns that can be easily applied to a study of jazz: to improvise is to begin without second thought, and under the rules there is no turning back. Improv- isation is the performance of a composition at the moment of its composition. One preserves such a moment by refusing to revise its results. It is deliberate but undelib- erated. J In a word, improvisation def ami 1 iar izes: both an "original" text in Shklovsky's phrase, it transfers "the usual perception of an object into the sphere of a new perception" and the very process, the trusted conventions, of invention and composi- tion.

In it, according to the author's own account, "You have a story that is essentially, extraordinarily dramatic — two black men in China, one of whom is explaining jazz, which is a totally oral tradition based on improvising, to the oldest literate and literal society in the world.

Not sur- prisingly, the audience was nonplussed. They had never heard anything like this before. Their language did not even have a word for improvisation.

Following the performance there was a call for questions. An old professor stood up. And Mitchell heard it. And he answered. You play some- thing once--something very beaut i ful--and then you just throw it away.

Naturally, the answer 74 one gives turns on the narrative position one takes up or refuses to take up. On the one hand, the presuppositions on which the Chinese base the creation and performance of music have just been contested, but, at least at the close of the narrative, they, and especially their makers, seem hardly shaken.

On the other hand, the presuppositions of jazz have also been contested; the value of improvisation has been attacked. Ruff does not answer or, rather, if he did, his answer is not given. In any event, we are left with two observations. First, improvisation has meaning only within certain contexts.

It is a sign operative in a textual effect of certain semiotic systems. To be abrupt, Zinsser is wrong. Jazz is not "a totally oral tradition," for in such an imaginary zone, improvisation would have abso- lutely no meaning. It draw a large "X" over this pronoun would simply be Music.

Pierre Boulez puts it this way: "It is necessary to deny all invention that takes place in the framework of writing. Finally, improvisation is not possible" in Noise , Second, improvisation can be read as a reflection of Western ideology. The old professor, to press a little on his comment, sees improvisation as con- gruent with what has been repeatedly called "a throw-away society.

He refers to it as embellishment, and he portrays it — a commodity 75 of mass culture—as "a veneer of individual 'effects'" pasted on the standardized form of popular song.

In hit music, however, the structure underlying the piece is abstract, existing independent of the specific course of the music. For the com- plicated in popular music never functions as "itself" but only as a disguise or embellishment behind which the scheme can always be perceived.

The ear deals with the difficulties of hit music by achieving slight substitutions derived from the knowledge of the patterns. The listener, when faced with the complicated, actually hears only the simple which it represents and perceives, the complicated only as a parodistic distortion of the simple, p. Thus, we see that in coming to grips with jazz and popular music he regards the two as synonyms , Adorno substitutes the concept of the embellished, standardized product for what Schuller calls "the music itself.

Indeed, his argument hones in on and attacks, not the music itself although that is probably intended , but an image supporters and detractors alike enlist to conceptu- alize or give voice to the music. For example, notice how the following passage from a jazz appreciation textbook works off exactly the same image Adorno employs: Early jazz musicians often began improvising simply by embellishing the melodies of pop tunes.

Eventually, the embellishments became as good as and more important to a performance than the tunes themselves. In some per- formances, all that remained was the original tune's spirit and chord progressions. What is today called improvising was referred to by early jazz musicians as "messin' around," embellishing, "jassing," "jazzing up.

The issue, then, is not which trope to use in representing jazz, but what valence to assign to that trope. The point is, the target of Adorno's virulence may be jazz or mass culture, but his rhetorical strategy involves an attack on a privileged metaphor which he rightly assumes this culture will identify with the object of his scorn. For his argument to function, he must create the effect of attacking jazz imagined as either a referent or signified by invoking — actually accepting and, then, contesting or devaluing—an image identified with jazz: one which he, the ever-ready iconoclast, hopes and rightly knows will be taken as an icon of jazz.

At this juncture, we would do well to ask a question. What must a written piece look like before it will be accepted as dealing with what Schuller refers to as "music itself"? Or stated differently, in order to make the claim hold — that one writes about jazz, its essence, stripped of all impedi- menta—how must one write?

Before this question can be ade- quately engaged, however, one must speculate on another ques- tion: What must patterns of sounds do how must they affect the human ear before the statement, "This is jazz," can be said to make sense? My answer to this last question, although 78 highly schematic and ultimately incomplete, will reinforce and elaborate what we have already seen.

For a given acoustic pattern to be taken as jazz, it has to be perceived as an individual perf ormance--a musical equivalent of parole --der i ving from and contributing to a fundamental structure—a musical equivalent of langue. More- over, the fundamental structure which allows and determines a particular performance is, to adopt and paraphrase Saussure, both a social product of the ability to make sounds with voices and musical instruments and a group of necessary conventions e.

Simply put, cultures—and, specifically, institutions— determine what counts as sound, music, or jazz, and as Attali notes, the conventions which dictate the production, distribution, and reception of music are ideologically motivated. Designating, defining or merely recognizing, a group of sounds as noise or music is not a neutral or innocent act; it is a gesture of appropriation and control. Listening to music is a political act, because in designating a group of sounds as music or noise the listener ratifies or opposes the system that produced and 79 distributed that music Noise , 6.

This is why Adorno can declare: "To dislike a song is no longer an expression of subjective taste but rather a rebellion against the wisdom of a public utility" "Pop Music," In listening, as in watching a movie or reading a book, one is situated by ideology.

Thus, the two questions I asked above--"What must a written piece look like before it will be accepted as dealing with music itself? The study of jazz itself is part of the political system that determines what will be construed included and excluded—as jazz itself. So then, the tropes which represent jazz match up with our perception of jazz "the music itself "--for good reason.

In this section I have argued that jazz is always repre- sented as a set of "unwritten" agrements which are disseminated orally by word of mouth and electronically by means of radio and recordings , and that the goal of musicology is to systematically write out the ornaments that organize jazz as a musical language, thereby, through means of a fundamental tautology, ratifying the image or model of jazz as a set of 80 agrements and opposing, what Perlrnan and Greenblatt call, the "commonly-held assumption among people whose acquaintance with jazz is casual or informal that the music is made up out of nothing, invented out of thin air.

Improvisation, then, is best conceptualized as a textual practice--a figure of debate or contestation— raised, most notably, by the sign jazz. In their essay "Miles Davis Meets Noam Chomsky," Perlman and Greenblatt explain the jazz solo through an analogy that likens improvisation to "linguistic performance.

It underscores the necessity of mapping music onto language mapping one semiotic system onto another generates the effect of intelligibility and the explanatory power that results from such a mapping, that is, when, through an enabling trope, one translates jazz into language.

It is the musical 81 figures, or "licks" played, of course, on the correct scale- and chord-tones that give a jazz solo its dis- tinctive jazz sound, in the same way that speaking English implies the use of the available word stock of the lan- guage, including bona fide loan words and recognizable neologisms.

It reminds us that a reliance upon f ormulas-- agrements — whether in music or writing does not necessarily exclude complexity. But more than that, it suggests, in its argument for the value of improvisation no one is writing articles arguing for the value of composition or the complexity of classical music , that the image which brings jazz into discourse is, once again, the site of ideological contestation and struggle.

Improvisation, embellishment, ornamentation, and ad- libbing — terms in a series of binary oppositions—are thinkable only in a paradigm or through a construct that has estab- lished a concept "text. Most importantly, these terms are already in place--they are pregnant with meani ng--when jazz arises diachronically , in history, or synchronically , in performance. Jazz entered this culture pre-represented.

The codes which spoke it, imbued it with meaning were, so to speak, 82 already situated when it arrived. Or as the Horacio Oliveira, the narrator of Hopscotch , puts it: Bessie's singing, Coleman Hawkins's cooing, weren't they illusions, or something even worse, the illusion of other illusions, a dizzy chain going backwards, back to a monkey looking at himself in the water on that first day?

To make sure that their arguments were taken as truth, these critics invested rhetorically in the already established negative connotations of the signifiers of jazz.

On the other hand, those sympathetic to jazz devised two lines of approach. First, they interpreted jazz as radical music modern, avant garde, or proletarian and used it to invert or they read it as inverting the very oppositions which the foes of jazz hoped to maintain. They reversed the polarity of the connotators of jazz and glorified it as the vindication of style over substance, improvisation spontaneous creation over composition labored deliberation , and the 83 primitive over the civilized i.

But what if supporters of jazz were unwilling to wield this music as a weapon in the fight against oppression of whatever sort? For instance, what if their financial resources were not sufficient to allow them to estrange themselves from positions of power, or what if such an estrangement would effectively silence them? Then they still had another option. They could maintain that jazz might have originated as embel- lishment, ornamentation, and ad-libbing, but that good or real 3 az z could never be reduced to a series of agrements i.

Jazz, if one listened closely enough, was good music by any standard which meant it was good by standards argued for by the opponents of jazz.

The important issue, then, was not whether jazz would be represented by means of a metaphor which I, out of convenience, labeled the figure of agrements.

As we have seen, jazz arrived and, synchronically, arises already understood as ornamen- tation. Its meta- phors were quickly naturalized and normalized because, in fact, they pre-dated the music. The issue was, and still is, one of interpretation. The battle for the possession of the sign jazz centered on reading: which group's interpretation :em om 84 of the tropes that brought jazz into discourse would be taken as true or authoritative something that obviously changed in time and from place to place.

Of course, no particular side won. I think for two reasons. First, as Gramsci notes, hegemony is a "moving equilibrium. These aberrant readings, byproducts of hegem- ony, not of opposition for that is another matter , con- stantly returned to destabilize meaning. Second, and most obviously, jazz lost its popular appeal although it has not ceased trying to win it back.

The battle continued, but its front changed. It 85 cuts to the heart but, then again, perhaps only to the rind of the issue of improvisation, for although jazz cannot be reduced to this figure even critics will admit that an improvisation is more than a series of obbligati , the obbli- gato is one of the basic tropes from which jazz derived and is built.

Interestingly, this undecidable, double-edged word has two, opposed meanings. Obligatory, usually with reference to an instrument violino obbligato or part that must not be omitted ; the opposite is ad libitunu Unfortunately, through misunderstanding or carelessness, the term has come to mean a mere accompanying part that may be omitted if necessary.

As a result, one must decide in each individual case whether obbligato means "obbligato" or "ad libitum"; usually it means the former in early music and the latter in more recent pieces. Were these the only choices? And that mysterious someone or something's "messin' around" or "jazzing up" made the obbligato as obbli- gato "come to mean" something else.

Let us name the product of this illicit relationship, the result of this unfortunate scandal, obbligato as ad libitum , and let us raise a series of questions which will not be answered, at least not directly through the means of declaration. By what process does one differentiate the obligatory from the arbitrary, the embellishment from the thing itself?

Is the improvised, that is, the unwr itten-on-a-score, thought- up-on-the-spot obbligato arbitrary or obligatory? Can an 86 improvised obbligato displace a melody, become something more than a subordinate voice? When does an obbligato — by Schuller's definition, "an embellishment of a melody" EJ, --become the sine qua non? When does the arbitrary become obligatory? The obligatory arbitrary?

Should we designate the obbligato as ad libitum as a product — perhaps an "unintended" result--of obbligato as obbligato? What il logic moves the obbligato as obbligato to become a simulacrum of itself, obbligato as ad libitum? How can one distinguish an obbligato from its double? If "one roust decide in each individual case whether obbligato means 'obbligato' or 'ad libitum,'" then how was the generic, albeit liberal, law of 'usually it means. Why has obbligato as obbligato been opposed to, and privileged over eg.

What does Music have against obbligato as ad libitum? Of course, the paraerotic phrase, "come to mean," which links obbligato as obbligato to obbligato as ad libitum cannot help but prompt an association with jazz, for jazz, as is commonly known, once functioned as a euphemism for copulation. Merriam and Garner, for example, in their well documented but inconclusive, etymological essay on the word jazz , note this and indicate "a possible line of research" connecting "jazz" with "jasra.

Now, it could be easily maintained that I am taking things too far perhaps, as adolescents say, even going "all the way" , that this kind of free association can be done with any word.

What can and cannot be said about, done with, words? She played standing up with a lot of percussion and was also more syncopated than me. It was an inspirational learning experience. I highly recommend playing with another drummer, although it is quite noisy and difficult to transport two kits.

What advice would you give to a woman interested in playing heavy metal drums? There are many. Sometimes, you can play a show where all of the drummers are athletes, trying to prove who is fastest and loudest, who has the bigger drum set.

Does your daughter also play drums? She has gone a different route, and plays piano and cello, which are awesome foundations for playing drums in the future! You have such a wide range of influences and tastes that totally come through in the music you make. Share and tell, please:. Drumwise, I love the choices Dave Lombardo makes on earlier Slayer albums. Sometimes, when I am drumming, I envision myself riding a horse around the base of a castle.

So for me, horseback riding is a mental influence. I also really like Deep Purple and The Scorpions. Classical music, especially Bach and Lizst. I never thought that would happen! So far, John Coltrane is my favorite. At the high-profile Roadburn festival in , shEver really impressed the crowds, and they have just released another full-length, Rituals on the Jerusalem-based Total Rust label. This naturally means, of course, that Sarah and her bandmates, now with Chris Perez on bass, are back in the recording studio again.

You seem to draw from a lot of different music to help you create the dark, huge, and heavy overall feeling of shEver.

What kind of stuff do you listen to? My influences are Black Sabbath and King. Do you have any tips for recording? Sarah Sutter: Look for appropriate drumheads that. I started when I was eight years old and had about three years of lessons. When I was 12 years old, my first band formed in school.

Sometimes I play the guitar and soon I will play a hang [drum. It is important to tune the drums, as I saw in the studio some days ago. Our sound engineer, Serge, came up with the suggestion. Good energy for harmony and good food are also important for me. My arms and legs I rub with Tiger Balm before our sessions. Playing the blackened, doomy, trance-like metal that you do, how do you work on your speed and control? I search my center,. The music that moves me must be authentic, emotional, heavy, dirty, and psychedelic.

When did you start playing drums? Do you play other instruments as well? You said that you work as a nurse. How do you balance work and metal? Do the people you care for have any idea about the kind of heavy music you play? I will reduce my work schedule to find a.

But if they ask me by chance in a chat, sure, I tell them about it. Also, some of my working-team knows. Was joining a band of all women until recently a choice? It was.

But when I found out that they were, it was very attractive for me. I heard and saw shEver with their first drummer Melanie and was impressed by this band. Then, many months later, I gave a look on the shEver website to see where they were playing next and I noticed that they were looking for a new drummer.

Do you find that there is a difference playing with or being in a band with women vs. Now that Chris has joined the band, is anything different? I think there exist. You can recognize an individual approach with the strength and the weakness of each gender.

But this process happens subconsciously. Finally, it depends on each person. The interpersonal relationship and the musical goals have to fit, no matter if it is a man or woman.

A founding member of the legendary Bay Area sludge metal band Noothgrush, Chiyo Nukaga has been pounding on the drums for over 20 years. Chiyo has been involved in numerous musical projects, recordings and tours since she started teaching herself drums at the age of Recently, she joined up with Graves at Sea, only to depart shortly thereafter because of the touring restrictions being a mom can bring.

Amidst adorable holiday decorations and homemade cookies, we got wine drunk and talked about her experience as a drummer, a mom, and an all around bad ass. Tom Tom Magazine: When did you start playing drums? Chiyo Nukaga:. I got my first set for my 20th birthday. I remember the first set I rented was a CB or something.

Remember those? It was horrible. I rented that for a while, then my first set I got from my co-worker at Home Depot.

He was selling his small jazz Sonor set for cheap. So that was my first set. Do you want to talk about what inspired you to start playing drums? Dale Crover Melvins. Chris Hakius Sleep, Om. I used. His style, and power were just really different at the time. I think I am still influenced by them over 20 years later. I used to not use a clutch in. I would get a piece of pipe and put it in between the cymbals so it was really loud and sounded like a trashcan. On tour, I would lose the pipe and have to go into the bathroom and unravel an entire roll of toilet paper to get the cardboard at the end.

I would cut it to size and use that instead. It would sound great for the first couple of songs and then by the end of the set it would diminish. When I started playing with Amber. Asylum, I started using a clutch because I was breaking my hi hat cymbals so much. In Descending Sorrow, I was using two hi hats, one with a clutch and one without so I can have both options.

My snare is a 12 inch, bright pink Porkpie. I got it because it sounded like a gunshot to me. And because everything in my kit is low: big toms, big cymbals. I wanted to have that contrast of having a high pitched snare. Now its kind of old and loosing it punch. The bad thing about the 12 inch snare is that it always goes out of tune.

Even with lug locks. When you use big sticks on a small snare, it will always go out of tune. Do you want to talk about gender and how being female has challenged you or shaped your experience? I remember getting. In the Bay Area, people who do sound generally were cool, but not so much in the Midwest or even New York. I got really mad and I might have thrown a stick at him or something. My dad actually used to let us practice at his auto shop for free.

He used to bring us rice balls for dinner. It never really bothered me what strangers thought. What kinds of wisdom have you acquired throughout your career as a drummer? There has been a huge difference between when. Noothgrush used to play before and now.

Now we get asked to play big festivals, where as before we were all DIY and involved in the punk scene in the Bay Area. We used to always be the only slow band on a bill and usually had to play first. There was never a backstage or anything. Recently, I remember watching drummers backstage playing Southern Lord Fest.

There were all these drummers doing warm ups, rudiments, being serious, not talking to people or drinking, which is what I would be doing. I started admiring them and thought I would try doing that as well.

And it seems like it helps! Now I drink water and practice rudiments before shows. Its like wow, after 20 years I have figured this out. What plans does Noothgrush have for the future?

We are planning. We are going to Japan to tour with them in October. I am excited for this one because I can bring my son Laney with me. I plan on leaving him with my family while we are playing shows. What goes on for you during the song writing process? I am really good at arrangement, so once we have some parts going, I play a big role in putting the final song together. How has playing drums shaped your life to be what it is today? Music is how I express myself in so many different ways.

We write and play very well with each other. I think that playing drums particularly has helped me open up more than with any other instrument. What role has gender played in shaping your experience as a musician? Gender is always at the forefront, whether you want. Becky Hawk is an Oakland-based drummer who currently divides her time between the long running chamber folk act Amber Asylum and Laudanum, the pummeling doom band founded in with her husband Judd.

Her style is fluid, yet deliberate, crushing, yet precise. This is made wholly evident on Laudanum release, The Coronation. Becky Hawk was gracious enough to take the time to talk to Tom Tom about her experiences and philosophy as a drummer.

I had been playing bass in bands for years and started wanting different things to happen with the drums in those bands so I began to think about how I would play those songs on the drums. I felt an immediate connection with the drums. Biggest influences past and present? John Bonham and Dale. I just go with what I feel. With drums there is continuous movement no matter the speed or style which. From what I have seen, women are the minority in almost all fringe styles of music, which are the types of music I am most interested in and have always played.

But i have been lucky because I have had the opportunity to play in bands with some amazing women. The first band I played in was an all-female band and it was so easy to develop as a musician with other women. I am so inspired by the talent of my bandmates and we have shared a lot of the same obstacles and experiences as musicians. Also, the music of this band Amber Asylum has a delicate nature.

With Laudanum, we are currently completing the. With Amber Asylum, we have been in the studio and will go back in next month to complete the recording for the next two albums.

Any closing words you would like to include? In my experience, I have always learned the most playing with other people. So for anyone who wants to start playing music, I recommend joining a band. Cheshire Augusta knows about playing from the heart. From touring regularly, making pilgrimages to study with jazz instructors, as well as taking on the role of teacher with her own students, she has built her life around drumming.

Cheshire was gracious enough to share some of her wisdom with Tom Tom Magazine. Tom Tom Magazine: Your drumming brings forth a mixture of styles ranging from classic rock and roll, jazz, and prog to giant stoner beats.

Please explain your approach to drumming. Cheshire Agusta: My style, such as it is—thanks for the compliment. Make it good. Make it speak for itself. Make the music harken to other things. My very young students remind me of this. They want to play games with sounds that represent things in the world and in their imaginations.

How does T-Rex sound when it walks? You have to take in as much as you can and then trust yourself with it. Practicing, playing, writing. I want them to dig deep and tell me something about themselves and I want to see that they really put the work into it—which means practicing, living, absorbing all possible influences, reaching out and looking in. Writing with Stinking Lizaveta amounts to us beating on each other until we are finally ready to beat on the material.

My pre-performance ritual is yoga and a warm-up on. I like the marching snare triplet and quintuplet grids. Much easier to see music notation: one source is snarescience. How has playing drums shaped your life? Well I shaped my life around playing the drums.

I wanted to drum, make records, and. One very big choice I kind of made, or was kind of made for me by attrition biology is a bitch and she does not care about you, trust me as a result of deciding to continue to play and tour year after year is, guess what? I got no kids. Yes, my bass player, who is male, has a daughter who will be 14 next summer.

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