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Unlabelled audio cassette. Armstrong spares none of the three monotheisms in her critique of intolerant policies as she ponders the supreme irony that the Holy City, revered by the faithful as symbol and site of harmony and integration, has been a contentious place where the faiths have fought constantly, not only with one another but within themselves, in bitter factions.
Her condemnation of Israel's annexation of the Old City and East Jerusalem in the Six-Day War "It was impossible for Israelis to see the matter objectively, since at the [Western Wall] they had encountered the Jewish soul" , however, pushes too far her theme of sacred geography as the physical embodiment of motivating myths and legends. Copyright Reed Business Information, Inc. Her book is very good, admirable for being concise and evenhanded in discussing the disputed terrain.
Throughout, Ms. Armstrong maintains her focus, never losing sight of the city as her subject. The historical details she cites can be fascinating.
What is the majesty of Jerusalem that has caused it to become the Holy City of three different religions? Karen Armstrong, who was a Roman Catholic nun for seven years, expertly reveals Jerusalem's creation myth as it stands for Jews, Christians and Muslims.
The stories of this spiritual center's people and past are fascinating. Armstrong's portrayals are riveting. Her masterful and energetic tone conveys deep wisdom of the city's legends. Listeners become her students and learn of the power of this "sacred space"--its importance in a modern world in which religion and true spirituality are often forgotten.
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There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Verified Purchase. I must preface this review by saying that I cannot judge the facts, causes, effects, or meanings both religious and secular of author Karen Armstrong's comprehensive history of Jerusalem. I'm a complete novice on the subject of this book.
I read the book for enjoyment and to learn about Jerusalem's history. Having expressed my disclaimer, I found pluses and minuses to the book. First, the pluses. Armstrong has written an extremely detailed and comprehensive history of the city and area.
The book is dense with facts, names, and details covering over years. She appears to me to be deeply knowledgable about the history and the three Abrahamic religions intertwined in this long story. Her writing is clear and I learned a lot. Now the minuses. Simply put, the book was a major struggle to wade through. Its simply too dense and long to be read enjoyably by the casual history reader.
Armstrong assumes the reader has a passable knowledge of the history of the area, names of key players, and the three religions involved in the history.
The book is much more of an academic treatise than a mass-market type read. And that's okay! She also spends a great deal of time on religious and moral contemplation, much of which does not advance the reader's historical understanding.
It was like trying to read two books history and religious philosophy which had been mashed together. Finally, the author is way too wordy. If 20 words will do, she often would use 60 to make the point. I think this is an important book which will appeal to a segment of readers and as a reference. But it has a definite point of view and is simply too dense and long for many more casual readers like me. Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths is the most comprehensive ancient to contemporary work on Jerusalem in modern libraries.
Karen Armstrong's writing style is accessible for average readers while preserving academic integrity. Armstrong's work guides the reader through all of the tribes that have occupied this small piece of earth's geography, beginning with the ancient civilizations of the Akkadians, through the Israelites, Christians, and Muslims, and all of the pagan societies in between. The historical substance comprises theology, geography, topography, climatology, civil and ecclesiastical polity, archeology, logography, architecture, agriculture, warfare, and commerce.
More than just another historical rendition, the breadth of the work is one that connects the timeline with real struggle in and over this holy place. Armstrong's perspective is uniquely informed through her Catholic heritage and her active participation with Jewish and Muslim communities. Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths tells the story of the sacredness of this place, from the three perspectives of the world's primary monotheist religions definition of "holy".
The reader walks away with a sense of the whole story, instead of fragments gathered through opinions, rumors, and news reports that are incomprehensible without the fuller scope of theological archaeology.
The sense of sacredness these three religions ascribe to this place come from the same species seeking something more divine than what is attainable within themselves. It is in this story that we find the Creator frustrated perhaps with the confounding process of humans being human while trying to be holy.
It is a juxtaposing journey that Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths brings clarity and rouses contemplation. Karen Armstrong. Only 2 left in stock - order soon. Register a free business account. From Scientific American Splendid. Eminently sane and patient. Essential reading for Jews, Christians, and Muslims alike. In this fascinating volume, Karen Armstrong, author of the highly praised A History of God, traces the history of how Jews, Christians, and Muslims have all laid claim to Jerusalem as their holy place, and how three radically different concepts of holiness have shaped and scarred the city for thousands of years.
Armstrong unfolds a complex story of spiritual upheaval and political transformation--from King David's capital to an administrative outpost of the Roman Empire, from the cosmopolitan city sanctified by Christ to the spiritual center conquered and glorified by Muslims, from the gleaming prize of European Crusaders to the bullet-ridden symbol of the present-day Arab-Israeli conflict.
Written with grace and clarity, the product of years of meticulous research, Jerusalem combines the pageant of history with the profundity of searching spiritual analysis. Her work has been translated into 45 languages. It was launched globally in the fall of Also in , she was awarded the Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Medal. In tombs on the Ophel hill, to the south of the present walls of the Old City, pottery vessels have been found which have been dated to BCE.
This was the time when towns had begun to appear in other parts of Canaan, the modern Israel; in Megiddo, Jericho, Ai, Lachish, and Beth Shan, for example, archaeologists have unearthed temples, houses, workshops, streets, and water conduits. But there is as yet no conclusive evidence that urban life had begun in Jerusalem at that period. Ironically, the city which would be revered as the center of the world by millions of Jews, Christians, and Muslims was off the beaten track of ancient Canaan.
Situated in the highlands, which were difficult to settle, it was outside the hub of the country. Development in the Early Bronze Age was mainly confined to the coastal plain, the fertile Jezreel Valley, and the Negev, where the Egyptians had established trade depots. Canaan was a potentially rich country: its inhabitants exported wine, oil, honey, bitumen, and grain.
It also had strategic importance, linking Asia and Africa and providing a bridge between the civilizations of Egypt, Syria, Phoenicia, and Mesopotamia.
But even though the springs around the Ophel hill had always attracted hunters, farmers, and temporary settlers—flints and shards have been found there dating from the Paleolithic Age—Jerusalem, as far as we know, played no part in this early florescence.
In the ancient world, civilization was always a precarious achievement. By about BCE there were virtually no cities left in Canaan. Because of either climatic change, foreign invasion, or internecine warfare, urban life disappeared. It was also a time of upheaval and instability throughout the Near East. Egypt saw the destruction of what is known as the Old Kingdom c.
The Akkadian dynasty of Mesopotamia was overthrown by the Amorites, a Western Semitic people who established a capital at Babylon. Urban sites were abandoned throughout Asia Minor, and Ugarit and Byblos, on the Phoenician coast, were destroyed. For reasons that we do not understand, Syria remained unscathed and nearby towns in northern Canaan, such as Megiddo and Beth Shan, managed to survive longer than their southern neighbors.
Yet in all these regions the struggle to create an ordered environment where people could lead a more secure and fulfilled life continued. New cities and new dynasties appeared and old settlements were restored. By the beginning of the second millennium the old towns of Canaan were inhabited once more. We know very little about life in Canaan at this period. No central government developed in the country.
Each town was autonomous, having its own ruler and dominating the surrounding countryside, rather as in Mesopotamia, where civilization had begun. Canaan remained an intensely regional country. There was no large-scale trade or industry, and there were such sharp differences of terrain and climate that the various districts tended to remain distinct and cut off from one another.
Few people lived in the highlands, the Judaean steppes, or the Jordan Valley, where the river was not navigable and led nowhere. Communications were difficult, and people did not travel much from one part of the country to another. Naturally these regions remained the most densely populated, and it was this area which interested the pharaohs of the Twelfth Dynasty when they began to extend their influence northward toward Syria during the twentieth and nineteenth centuries BCE.
Sesostris III, for example, did not hesitate to march up the coastal road to subdue local rulers who were becoming too powerful and independent. Even so, the pharaohs showed relatively little interest in other parts of Canaan, and despite the general Egyptian overlordship, towns such as Megiddo, Hazor, and Acco developed into fortified city-states.
By the end of the nineteenth century, settlers had also begun to penetrate the hill country and built cities there. Shechem became the most powerful of these fortified highland towns: in area it may have been as large as thirty-seven acres, and it controlled a considerable part of the countryside. Cities, such as Hebron and Jerusalem, also developed in the southern hills. This is the point when Jerusalem can be said to have entered history. In the British archaeologist Kathleen Kenyon discovered a wall, nearly six and a half feet thick, running along the eastern slope of the Ophel hill with a large gate near the Gihon Spring.
She concluded that this town wall continued around the southern end of the hill and along the western slope. In the north it disappeared under a later city wall. Kenyon also found pottery between the wall and the rock scarp which dated to about BCE. Bhindranwale's occupation of the Akal Takht was termed as an act of sacrilege. Partap was murdered with gunshot at his home in Tahli Chowk. Several other dissenters were also killed. People criticising Bhindranwale were perceived as his enemies who in turn were branded as enemies of the Sikh faith.
The prominent members of the Sikh religion got the message being spread through the ongoing events and were afraid of personal safety. The violence incidents increased and reached its peak in the months before Operation Bluestar. The sacred Golden Temple was being defiled by the militants. An arsenal had been created within the Akal Takht over a period of several months.
Trucks that were engaged for kar seva religious service and bringing in supplies needed for the daily langar were used for bringing in guns and ammunition into the Golden Temple.
The police failed to check these vehicles, reportedly on instructions from superiors. During a random check, one truck was stopped and many sten guns and large quantity of ammunition was found. After the operation Blue Star, it was found that the militants had even set up a facility to manufacture grenade and to fabricate sten-guns inside the temple complex. At the same time, the number of murders kept increasing in the state and sometimes more than a dozen killings happened in a day.
Bhindranwale gradually took complete control of the Golden Temple from Akali Dal. The Akali Dal along with its militant wing Babbar Khalsa contested with Bhindranwale's group for dominance.
By April and May , the two groups clashed reached its peak with intimidations and killings. The two groups blamed each other for several assassinations. He called Bhindranwale "our stave to beat the government. The judgement would be accepted by both parties and carried out.
This added to his popularity. Bhindranwale was reportedly backed by Pakistan's ISI on his radical separatist stand, plans and operations. Bhindranwale had started the efforts for his demand in , and by mid had managed to gain support for his plan to divide India.
In , Bhindranwale and approximately armed followers moved into a guest-house called the Guru Nanak Niwas, in the precinct of Harmandir Sahib and made Golden Temple complex his headquarters. Atwal was shot dead as he left the Harmandir Sahib compound by a gunman from Bhindranwale's group.
While Bhindranwale was openly supporting such elements. As the days went by the law and order situation further deteriorated and violence around the complex escalated. While the Akalis pressed on with their two-pronged strategy of negotiations and massive campaigns of civil disobedience directed at the Central Government, others were not so enamoured of nonviolence. Communists known as " Naxalites ", armed Sikh groups — the " Babbar Khalsa " and " Dal Khalsa ", sometimes worked hand in hand and clashed with the police.
A covert government group known as the Third Agency was also engaged in dividing and destabilising the Sikh movement through the use of undercover officers, paid informants and agents provocateurs. During the debate in the Parliament of India members of both the houses demanded the arrest of Bhindranwale. Sensing a prospect of his arrest from the hostel premises, he convinced the SGPC president Tohra to set up his headquarter in Akal Takht Shrine representing the temporal power of God in the Golden temple.
Babbar Khalsa had also the support of the Congress party. Longowal by now feared for his own safety. Longowal attempted to block the move by persuading Giani Kirpal Singh, then Jathedar head priest of the Akal Takht, to use his authority and issue a Hukamnama edict disallowing Bhindranwale from relocating to the complex. Mark Tully and Satish Jacob wrote, " All terrorists were known by name to the shopkeepers and the householders who live in the narrow alleys surrounding the Golden Temple By this time Bhindranwale and his men were above the law.
The government contemplated military moves to arrest Bhindranwale but this would have caused numerous casualties as collateral damage , the Golden Temple being one of the most visited sites in Punjab. It would have also hurt the religious sentiments of the Sikhs. The government sent a team led by Narasimha Rao to try to convince Bhindranwale to back out but he was adamant,  and refused all efforts made by the Indira Gandhi administration to negotiate a settlement.
These talks ended up being futile. There are many hunters after it". According to Lieutenant General Kuldip Singh Brar , who commanded the operation, the body of Bhindranwale was identified by a number of agencies, including the police, the Intelligence Bureau and militants in the Army's custody. He was adept at television, radio and press interviews. Though journalist Khushwant Singh believed himself to be on Bhindranwale's hit list, he allowed that the Sikh preacher-become-activist genuinely made no distinction between higher and lower castes, and that he had restored thousands of drunken or doped Sikh men, inured to pornographic films, to their families,  and that Operation Blue Star had given the movement for Khalistan its first martyr in Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale.
Though the movie was banned to avoid controversy, it is available on online platforms. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Bhindranwale. This article has multiple issues.
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June Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article relies excessively on partisan sources. Please improve this article or discuss the issue on the talk page. Religious leader of the Sikh organization Damdami Taksal. Jarnail Singh Brar . Akal Takht , Amritsar , Punjab, India. For the film, see Dharam Yudh Morcha film. Main article: Punjab insurgency. Main article: Operation Blue Star. Amritsar A City Remembers. Retrieved 22 February Archived from the original on 24 March Retrieved 18 March Retrieved 6 June Hindustan Times.
The Tribune. Expanding Governmental Lawlessness and Organized Struggles. Popular Prakashan. Mahmood The University of Georgia Press. Hardgrave; Stanley A. Kochanek India: Government and Politics in a Developing Nation.nivea-ның веб-сайтына қош келдіңіз! Біз nivea ұсынған тері күтімінің сүйікті өнімдерін пайдалану бойынша сізге керемет кеңестер ұсынамыз.